Head loss calculation

Hazen-Williams equation

Hazen-Williams equation is a popular approach for the calculation of head loss of liquid in piping systems. In this method, Hazen-Williams coefficient is introduced to the equation, the coefficient eliminates the need for using Reynolds number. The Hazen-Williams coefficient is mainly used to account for the pipe roughness or efficiency.

Hazen-Williams equation

Different formats for this equation is specified below

Equation 1 (US Units)

Hazen-Williams equation for head loss is shown below:

Hazen-williams equation 1

 

 

 

Where;
H = frictional head loss, ft
L = length of pipe, ft
D = inside diameter of pipe, ft
Q = flow rate, ft3/s
C = Hazen-Williams C factor or roughness coefficient, dimensionless

Equation 2 (US Units)

Hazen williams equation 2

 

 

 

Where;

H = friction loss, ft of water per 1000 ft of pipe
Q = flow rate, gal/min
D = inside diameter of pipe, in
C = Hazen-Williams C coefficient, dimensionless

Equation 3 (US Units)

Hazen-williams equation 3

 

 

 

Where;

Pmi = friction loss, psi per mile of pipe
Q = flow rate, gal/min
D = inside diameter of pipe, in
C = Hazen-Williams C coefficient, dimensionless

Equation 4 (US Units) – Flow rate

Hazen-williams flow rate equation

 

 

Where;

H = friction loss, ft of water per 1000 ft of pipe
Q = flow rate, gal/min
D = inside diameter of pipe, in
C = Hazen-Williams C coefficient, dimensionless

Equation 5 (SI Units)

Hazen-williams equation 5

 

 

Where;

Q = flow rate, m3/h
D = pipe inside diameter, mm
Pkm = frictional pressure drop, kPa/km
SG = liquid specific gravity (water = 1.00)
C = Hazen-Williams C factor, dimensionless

Common values for the Hazen-Williams coefficient C are listed in the table below:

Pipe materialC Factor
Brick100
Cast iron (old)100
Iron (worn/pitted)60 – 80
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)150
Smooth wood120
Smooth masonry120
Smooth pipes (all metals)130 – 140
Vitrified clay110

Read about another popular equation for head loss calculations using Darcy-Weisbach equation

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